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It is called acid to that substance that, in solution, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. When acids combine with bases, they allow the development of you go out .

Among the different types of acids, the nucleic acids . Is about polymers that are formed from certain monomers that are related through phosphodiester bonds . The following of these unions allows the development of extensive chains that can include millions of monomers.

It should be noted that a polymer is a macromolecule composed of multiple monomers, which are molecules of smaller size. In the specific case of nucleic acids, they are polymers formed by monomers that are joined by phosphodiester bonds (a covalent bond class).

He ribonucleic acid (RNA ) and the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ) are two types of nucleic acids. These acids store and transmit the genetic data of the living beings .

In the case of RNA , is composed of a linear chain of ribonucleotides, which can be found in eukaryotic cells and prokaryotes. The mode of construction of RNA and of other substances that form the cells is in the DNA , which houses the instructions linked to genetics. What we know as a gene, in fact, is a segment of DNA .

Beyond their functions , it is possible to differentiate between these classes of nucleic acids by their molecular mass (in the RNA is less than in the DNA ), its types of chain (the usual thing is that the RNA be single chain and the DNA , double stranded), its nitrogen bases and its carbohydrates.

The information genetics is contained in the nitrogen bases , which have a cyclic structure of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon. Some of them are the adenine , the guanine and the cytosine . Two types of nitrogen bases are recognized: purines and the pyrimidines , which are derived from purine and pyrimidine, respectively.

When you talk about the structure of nucleic acids , reference is made to its morphology, and this is studied in depth with examples such as RNA and DNA. Thanks to the observation of this structure in detail, it is possible to find the genetic code .

The concept of genetic code , on the other hand, is the group of rules that are obtained when a sequence of nucleotides in RNA. It is a kind of glossary in which certain equivalences between the language of proteins and the nitrogen bases of RNA are established. The following general characteristics of the genetic code are recognized:

* it is universal, since practically all living beings use it, with the exception of some triplets, in bacteria;

* each triplet has a particular meaning, so it has no ambiguity;

* each triplet can indicate a reading termination or encode an amino acid;

* Each amino acid has several triplets;

* no triplet shares nitrogenous bases with others;

* Its reading is unidirectional.

Taking up the structure of nucleic acids, whose development is based on the model of scientists Francis Crick and James Watson, is divided into the following four parts:

* primary : if we start from the chains that make up the DNA, the structure primary is defined as the sequence of nitrogen bases of each of them;

* high school : This is the group of interactions that take place between the nitrogen bases;

* tertiary : taking into account the limits of steric and geometric type, this structure is the location of atoms in three dimensions;

* quaternary : in the case of RNA, it refers to the interactions that take place between their units, either in the splenic or in the ribosome . If we talk about DNA, instead, it is your most complex chromatin organization.

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